Considered to be one of the most prosperous and happy civilizations. Initially, Babylonia was merely an ancient Akkadian-speaking state, which grew up and came to power after the fall of the Akkadian dynasty. It was the core, center, and heart of Mesopotamia civilization. The rule for around 300 years.
Interesting Facts about the Babylonian Empire
Hanging Gardens of Babylonian : The most prominent feature of Babylonian civilization and empire was the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon was considered to be one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. These gardens showcased the extraordinary and unique engineering abilities of Babylonian architects. They have been described as an ascending series of tiered gardens containing various trees, shrubs, and vines.
It looked like a green mountain constructed of mud bricks. Well, there is no physical evidence of the massive structure, and that’s why many historians doubt its existence. Some believe an earthquake in the second century destroyed the garden. At the same time, others believe it was demolished during the sacking of Babylon by the Assyrian king Sennacherib.
Religious beliefs : The skilled, knowledgeable, Mighty Babylonians believed in polytheism and worshiped multiple gods and goddesses. Marduk was their chief god. That’s why king Hammurabi built a 300 feet tall statue of the chief deity Marduk. Marduk was considered the creator of the world. Samas was the god of the sun. Dumuzi was the God of agriculture, and Ishtar was the mother goddess. They believed their deities were born mortals and experienced mortal feelings like happiness and sorrow.
Hammurabi’s code : In every dynasty, there comes a king who establishes a benchmark. In the Babylon empire, the king was Hammurabi. During his reign, the city of Babylon started growing enormously. Hammurabi’s code included more than 200 written rules and regulations covering land, property, industry, agriculture, etc. The rules were specific and strict, and it was written on clay tablets and tall stone pillars.
Military Power : Any country or civilization cannot withstand without the help of military power. Hammurabi’s code and his reign established Babylon with solid military power and trained soldiers for a strong and capable army. With the help of strong military power, he conquered all parts of Mesopotamia and ensured that his military presence was established in all new territories.
Liberty for women : It is considered to be the most liberal society for women. Women are liberally in comparison to other empires. They were allowed to become priests, sell wine and start their businesses. However, their primary role in the home remained paramount. The women of Babylonian civilization were allowed to ask for dowry from their parents. In addition, she had equal rights on her husband’s property even after his death.
Demand of children : In today’s era, all people are concerned about population growth. But in the Babylon empire, it was quite different; they believed in “the more children, the better.” Society demanded more and more people to bolster the workforce and have a large family. Having a large family means it is a state of honor and a matter of pride.
Art and Architecture : Babylonian civilizations were also known for their art and architecture. The art of Babylon was beautiful, unique, and progressive. They were skilled and experienced in both small-scale art and large-scale art. Small-scale art included jewelry making and large-scale architectural projects. The large palaces and statues proved that “Action speaks louder than words.” During the reign of Hammurabi, a 300 feet tall Marduk god statue was built. Another example was the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Trade and commerce : Babylonians not only excelled in the field of art and architecture, but they were also equally knowledgeable and skilled in trade and commerce. You will be astonished to know that they were the first in the history of world civilization to introduce the concept of a sales contract and also introduced a seal into the contract. They regularly imported gold, silver, copper, wood, salt, and stone and exported grains, clay pots, oil, and leather goods.
Literature and Education : As we already know, women were provided with certain liberties in the Babylon era. Both men and women were allowed to be educated in ancient Babylon. The Babylonians wrote in cuneiform and used over 350 symbols in writing. Babylonians’ contribution to the world of literature is immeasurable. They produced the poem Gilgamesh and the creation of the myth Enûma Eliš. Historical evidence shows that the Babylonians had a library.
Science : After conquering art and architecture, trade and commerce, literature, and education, Babylonians were also well versed with the knowledge of science. They were excellent in the field of science and astronomy. The priest studied the sun, the moon, the planets, the stars, and constellations to have depth knowledge of astrology and predict the future. They used sundials and water clock to know the time. They adopted a lunar calendar with 12 months in a year and 30 days in a month. They were good at systematically keeping records.
Agriculture : The Babylonians were highly interested in agriculture. They produced a variety of crops and had a vast knowledge of agricultural techniques. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were used to grow many crops. The Babylonians grow pistachios in their royal garden, and in other places, they grew barley, peas, olives, grapes, wheat, etc., in abundance.
Medicine : To build a happy, prosperous civilization and society. Health should be the primary concern of any ruler. Babylonians left a very impressive mark in this field also. During the first Babylonian dynasty, the king’s chief scholar wrote a diagnostic handbook in Akkadian. The diagnostic handbook is a large Babylonian medical text related to the identification and diagnosis of disease. This book was very successful and opened new doors for understanding diagnosis, prescription, prognosis, and physical examination. It also included a list of medical symptoms, steps of diagnosis, and treatments like bandages, pills, and therapy. This was just lit. Without the advancement of technology, their progression was praiseworthy.
End of old Babylonian : Later after the death of Hammurabi, the root of the Babylon empire began to shake, and everything fell apart. It lost its control over southern city-states, and ultimately mighty Babylonia shrunk to a weak nation. Samsu – Diana was the last ruler of Babylon. After that, the Kassites took control, and the Old Babylonian empire ended. The downfall of this mighty empire was no natural and defensible boundaries in southern Mesopotamia, internal decay, lack of influential leaders, and pressure from foreign invaders.
Neo-Babylonian Empire : It was also called the second Babylonian empire. Historically, it was also called Chaldean Empire. It was the last monarch empire ruled by a native of Mesopotamia. However, the ruling was short-lived, and in 539 BC, it was annexed by the Persian Achaemenid Empire
The fall : Babylonians reached the peak and tasted success in the reign of King Hammurabi, but after this successor took over, it began to fall. The successors were not strong enough and ambitious to expand such a wealthy and prosperous empire.
The Babylonian civilization was one of the greatest civilizations the world has ever witnessed. It was founded 4,000 years ago on the banks of Euphrates in Mesopotamia. It taught us that even without high technology, you could flourish, prosper and excel in every field; the only thing you need is determination, devotion, and dedication. The lack of these three Ds led to the vandalism of such an advanced civilization.
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